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Exploring the immune response, tolerance and resistance in proliferative kidney disease of salmonids

Bailey, Christyn, Strepparava, Nicole, Wahli, Thomas, Segner, Helmut
Developmental and comparative immunology 2019 v.90 pp. 165-175
B-lymphocytes, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmo trutta, coevolution, genes, host-parasite relationships, immune response, kidney diseases, parasites, pathogenesis, terminology, variance, wild fish, Europe
Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) of salmonids is a disease of economic and environmental concern caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. Finer details of the immune repertoire during T. bryosalmonae infection have been elucidated in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In contrast, there remain many unanswered questions regarding the immune response of the wild fish host in Europe, the brown trout (Salmo trutta) to this parasite. The first aim of this study is to examine the brown trout immune response to T. bryosalmonae and compare it with the published information on rainbow trout as two species that have undergone a different coevolution with the parasite. According to ecoimmunology terminology, infected organisms may manage infection by reducing the damage caused by parasites (tolerance) or by limiting parasite burden (resistance). The second aim of this study is to investigate tolerance/resistance patterns of these species during PKD infection. Our results suggest subtle differences in sequential aspects of the immune response and of immune genes that correlate with parasite intensity for the brown trout, in contrast to rainbow trout, in terms of the B cell response and Th-like interplay that may be linked to PKD pathogenesis. These differences in the immune response also correlate with species-specific differences in tolerance/resistance patterns, in that brown trout had increased tolerance but rainbow trout had greater resistance to infection. The variance in tolerance/resistance investment resulted in a different evolutionary outcome for each host-parasite interaction. A greater exploration of these concepts and an association of immune mechanisms could open an additional gateway for interpreting fish host-parasite interactions.