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Thioflavin T as a fluorescence probe for biosensing applications

Yeasmin Khusbu, Farjana, Zhou, Xi, Chen, Hanchun, Ma, Changbei, Wang, Kemin
Trends in analytical chemistry 2018 v.109 pp. 1-18
amyloid, fluorescence, fluorescent dyes, gene amplification, nucleic acids, water solubility
Thioflavin T (ThT), a water-soluble fluorescence probe and the conventional dye for the detection of amyloid fibrils has recently been demonstrated to recognize and bind nucleic acids. It induces the formation of G-quadruplex (G4) structure and appears as a sensor by emitting enhanced fluorescence. Incorporation of G-rich sequences in the nucleic acid amplification procedures assists the observation of the final products. In this manner, ThT with the “light-up” nature has emerged as a well-liked dye being devised in several biosensing applications. It offers sensitive and straightforward detection of biosubstrates including nucleic acids, proteins, small molecules as well as measurement of enzyme activities with the advantages of specificity, reduced background signal, and minimal cost. In this review, we aim to present a thorough overview of the ThT-based biosensing applications along with ThT/G-quadruplex complex formation and ThT-associated amplification techniques.