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Biogenic amines and free amino acids in craft beers from the Spanish market: A statistical approach

Poveda, J.M.
Food control 2019 v.96 pp. 227-233
ammonium, beers, brewing, free amino acids, histamine, manufacturing, markets, monitoring, multivariate analysis, pH, putrescine, raw materials, tyramine, Spain
The concentrations of seven biogenic amines and twenty-three free amino acids and ammonium ion were monitored in different craft beers acquired in the Spanish market. Besides, a statistical approach was conducted using multivariate statistical analysis. The significant differences observed between manufacturing batches, both in the content of free amino acids and biogenic amines, reveal a lack of homogeneity in the production, probably caused by the craft brewing process. A great variability among samples was observed in terms of their content in free amino acids. The main biogenic amine was putrescine, followed by tyramine and histamine; however, the concentrations were below those considered as toxic in alcoholic beverages. Strong negative correlations (P < 0.001) were found between pH and some biogenic amines. The differences in the amino acid profile and the content of biogenic amines in beer samples seem to be more related to the raw materials and to the brewery than to the type of brewing. Multivariate statistical analysis could serve as a useful tool for monitoring craft beers quality.