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Hard machining performance of indigenously developed green cutting fluid using flood cooling and minimum quantity cutting fluid

Gajrani, Kishor Kumar, Suvin, P.S., Kailas, Satish Vasu, Sankar, Mamilla Ravi
Journal of cleaner production 2019 v.206 pp. 108-123
additives, conjugated linoleic acid, cooling, cutting, emulsions, environmental impact, friction, health hazards, mineral oil, scanning electron microscopes, steel, surface roughness, vegetables
Cutting fluids play a vital part in turning process. Basically, these cutting fluids are made up of mineral oil (MO) and performance enhancing additives that are produced chemically. However, MO has adverse environmental effects and causes health hazards. Therefore, MO is gradually replaced by green cutting fluid (GCF). Indigenously developed environmental friendly vegetable based GCF with minimum quantity cutting fluid (MQCF) application technique can serve as a viable solution to make current work a cleaner process. In this present study, vegetable-based GCF was synthesised and characterized. Emulsion stability and anti-corrosion properties of GCF were investigated. MQCF machining process parameters such as cutting fluid emulsion composition, nozzle stand-off distance and nozzle spray angle were experimentally optimized to extract better output. Hard machining experiments were performed with developed GCF using flood cooling (FC) and MQCF techniques during turning of hardened AISI H-13 steel. For comparison, dry machining experiments were also carried out. Cutting force, feed forces, centre line average (CLA) surface roughness of workpiece were measured and the coefficient of friction was calculated. After machining, cutting tool rake face morphology and wear characteristics were studied using field emission scanning electron microscope, optical microscope and non-contact 3D surface profilometer. Result shows that cutting force, feed force, coefficient of friction and CLA surface roughness of workpiece were reduced using optimized MQCF process parameters. Also, machining performance was improved with MQCF technique using GCF as compared to flood cooling and dry machining.