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Structural characteristic and ammonium and manganese catalytic activity of two types of filter media in groundwater treatment
- Cheng, Ya, Huang, Tinglin, Cheng, Lijie, Sun, Yuankui, Zhu, Laisheng, Li, Ye
- Journal of environmental sciences (China) 2018 v.72 pp. 89-97
- X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ammonium, birnessite, calcium, catalytic activity, coatings, crystal structure, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, ferric oxide, groundwater treatment, maghemite, magnesium, manganese, manganese carbonate, manganese dioxide, oxidation, oxygen, physicochemical properties, scanning electron microscopes, scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential
- Two types of filter media in groundwater treatment were conducted for a comparative study of surface structure and catalytic performance. Natural filter media was adopted from a conventional aeration–filtration groundwater treatment plant, and active filter media as a novel and promising filter media was also adopted. The physicochemical properties of these two kinds of filter media were characterized using numerous analytical techniques, such as X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Zeta potential. The catalytic activities of these filter media were evaluated for ammonium and manganese oxidation. XRD data showed that both active filter media and natural filter media belonged to birnessite family. A new manganese dioxide (MnO2) phase (PDF#72-1982) was found in the structure of natural filter media. The SEM micrograph of natural filter media showed honeycomb structures and the active filter media presented plate structures and consisted of stacked particle. These natural filter media presented lower level of some trace elements such as calcium and magnesium, lower degree of crystallinity, lower Mn(III) content and lattice oxygen content than that of active filter media, which were associated with its poor ammonium and manganese catalytic activities. In addition, some γ-Fe2O3 and MnCO3 were found in the coating which may hinder the ammonium and manganese catalytic oxidation. This study provides a thorough and comprehensive understanding about the most commonly used filter media in water treatment, which can provide a theoretical guide to practical applications.