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Systemic foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in cattle promotes specific antibody secreting cells at the respiratory tract and triggers local anamnestic-compatible responses upon aerosol infection
- J. PEGA, S. DI GIACOMO, D. BUCAFUSCO, J. M. SCHAMMAS, D. MALACARI, F. BARRIONUEVO, A. V. CAPOZZO, L. L. RODRIGUEZ, M. BORCA, M. PEREZ-FILGUEIRA
- Journal of virology 2015 v.89 no.18 pp. 9581-9590
- B-lymphocytes, Foot-and-mouth disease virus, aerosols, cattle, foot-and-mouth disease, immune response, immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M, lymph nodes, neutralizing antibodies, particles, respiratory system, tissues, vaccination, vaccines, viruses
- Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting biungulate species. Commercial vaccines, formulated with inactivated whole FMD virus (FMDV) particles, are regularly used worldwide in regions recognized as free from the disease. Here, we studied the generation of antibody responses in local lymphoid tissues along the respiratory system in vaccinated and further aerosol-infected cattle. High payload monovalent FMD vaccines developed rapid neutralizing antibody responses at 7 days post-vaccination (dpv), reaching a plateau until 29 dpv. FMDV-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC), predominantly IgM, were evident in the prescapular lymph node (LN) draining the vaccination site at 7 dpv, but also in distal LN draining the respiratory system, although in much lower magnitude. Twenty-nine dpv a significant switch to IgG1 was clear in the prescapular LN and, interestingly, FMDV-specific ASC were detected in all the lymphoid tissues draining the respiratory tract, mostly as IgM secreting cells. None of the animals (n=12) showed FMD symptoms after oronasal infection at 30 dpv. Infection, however, induced a large increase in ASC numbers and rapid isotype switches to IgG1 particularly in LN draining the replication sites of the virus. These results indicate for the first time that systemic FMD vaccination in cattle effectively promotes the presence of anti-FMDV ASC in lymphoid tissues located at the respiratory system. Oronasal infection triggered an immune reaction compatible with a local anamnestic response upon contact with the replicating FMDV, suggesting that FMD vaccination might induce the circulation of antigen-specific B-lymphocytes, some of which are memory B-cells that differentiate to ASC soon after contact with the infective virus.