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Antioxidant activity of different species and varieties of turmeric (Curcuma spp): Isolation of active compounds Toxicology & pharmacology

Akter, Jesmin, Hossain, Md. Amzad, Takara, Kensaku, Islam, Md. Zahorul, Hou, De-Xing
Comparative biochemistry and physiology 2019 v.215 pp. 9-17
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Curcuma amada, Curcuma aromatica, Curcuma longa, Curcuma zanthorrhiza, Curcuma zedoaria, absorbance, active ingredients, curcumin, free radical scavengers, gallic acid, high performance liquid chromatography, hydroxyl radicals, inhibitory concentration 50, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, oxidation, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, rutin, silica gel, tandem mass spectrometry, turmeric, Ryukyu Archipelago
There are >80 species of turmeric (Curcuma spp.) and some species have multiple varieties, for example, Curcuma longa (C. longa) has 70 varieties. They could be different in their chemical properties and biological activities. Therefore, we compared antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of different species and varieties of turmeric namely C. longa [variety: Ryudai gold (RD) and Okinawa ukon], C. xanthorrhiza, C. aromatica, C. amada, and C. zedoaria. The antioxidant activity was determined using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), reducing power and 2-deoxyribose (2-DR) oxidation assay. Our results suggested that RD contained significantly higher concentrations of total phenolic (157.4 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and flavonoids (1089.5 mg rutin equivalent/g extract). RD also showed significantly higher DPPH radical-scavenging activity (IC50: 26.4 μg/mL), ORAC (14,090 μmol Trolox equivalent/g extract), reducing power absorbance (0.33) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50: 7.4 μg/mL). Therefore, RD was chosen for the isolation of antioxidant compounds using silica gel column, Toyopearl HW-40F column, and high-performance liquid chromatography. Structural identification of the compounds was conducted using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The purified antioxidant compounds were bisabolone-9-one (1), 4-methyllene-5-hydroxybisabola-2,10-diene-9-one (2), turmeronol B (3), 5-hydroxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-hepten-3-one (4), 3-hydroxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-6-hepten-1,5-dione (5), cyclobisdemethoxycurcumin (6), bisdemethoxycurcumin (7), demethoxycurcumin (8) and curcumin (9). The IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity were 474, 621, 234, 29, 39, 257, 198, 47 and 18 μM and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity were 25.1, 24.4, 20.2, 2.1, 5.1, 17.2, 7.2, 3.3 and 1.5 μM for compound 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, respectively. Our findings suggested that the RD variety of C. longa, developed by the University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan, is a promising source of natural antioxidants.