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Egg Yolk Extracts as Potential Liposomes Shell Material: Composition Compared with Vesicles Characteristics

Kondratowicz, Anna, Neunert, Grażyna, Niezgoda, Natalia, Bryś, Joanna, Siger, Aleksander, Rudzińska, Magdalena, Lewandowicz, Grażyna
Journal of food science 2018 v.83 no.10 pp. 2527-2535
acetone, bioactive compounds, carotenoids, cholesterol, cold, egg yolk, ethanol, food industry, health promotion, hexane, intravenous injection, manufacturing, nanocapsules, nanocarriers, permeability, pharmaceutical industry, phospholipids, principal component analysis, raw materials, tocopherols, zeta potential
Our aim was to propose simple extraction process to obtain phospholipids along with yolk‐derived vitamins and fats. Five extracts marked as ethanol/acetone, methanol‐chloroform/acetone, hot ethanol, hexane, and cold ethanol were developed and compared. Extracts' compositions were analyzed in terms of phospholipid, polar and nonpolar fraction, cholesterol, carotenoids, and tocopherols content. Further, liposomes prepared from extracts were characterized. The highest extraction efficiency was achieved by a one‐step hexane procedure. However, that sample, in contrast to the other four extracts, revealed distinctively lower permeability when used for liposomes membrane formation. Principal component analysis proved that major components contents were decisive for liposomes membranes permeability, whereas minor constituents’ content controlled zeta potential and Z‐average size. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Liposomes are nanocarriers widely used in pharmaceutical industry. Due to intravenous route of administration, they have to be produced from phospholipids of very fine purity. On the other hand, there is increasing interest in nanoencapsulation of labile, bioactive substances for manufacturing of health promoting food. Unfortunately, high‐price pure phospholipids are prohibitive for food applications. The use of raw material obtained by simple extraction procedure instead of highly purified phospholipids could be an attractive alternative for food industry.