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Genetic relationship in Cicer Sp. expose evidence for geneflow between the cultigen and its wild progenitor

Ruth van Oss, Shahal Abbo, Ravit Eshed, Amir Sherman, Clarice J. Coyne, George J. Vandemark, Hong-Bin Zhang, Zvi Peleg
Plos One 2015 v.10 no.10 pp. e0139789
Cicer arietinum, alleles, chickpeas, crops, cultivars, domestication, gene flow, geographical distribution, germplasm, introgression, landraces, phenotype, phylogeny, phytogeography, single nucleotide polymorphism, wild relatives, Turkey (country)
There is a debate concerning mono- or poly-phyletic origins of the Near Eastern crops. In parallel, some authors claim that domestication was not possible within the natural range of the wild progenitors due to wild alleles flow into the nascent crops. Here we address both issues in order to understand the relationship between domesticated chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and its wild progenitor (C. reticulatum Ladizinsky) with special emphasis on its domestication centre in southeastern Turkey. A set of 103 chickpea cultivars and landraces from the major growing regions alongside wild accessions (C. reticulatum, C. echinospermum, C. bijugum) sampled across the natural distribution range in eastern Turkey were genotyped with 194 SNPs markers. The genetic affinities between and within the studied taxa were assessed using various genetic structure analyses. The phylogeny analysis suggests a mono-phyletic origin of the cultigen, although no wild accession seems as a likely member of the wild stock of the cultigen. Clear separation between the wild and domesticated germplasm was apparent, with negligible level of admixture. A single C. reticulatum accession shows morphological and allelic signatures of admixture, a likely result of introgression. No evidence of geneflow from the wild into domesticated germplasm was found. Our results grant support to the notion of domestication within the natural distribution range of the wild progenitor, suggesting that the Neolithic domesticators were fully capable of selecting the desired phenotypes even when facing rare wild-domesticated introgression events.