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Ectomycorrhizae formed by three Japanese truffle species (Tuber japonicum, T. longispinosum, and T. himalayense) on indigenous oak and pine species

Kinoshita, Akihiko, Obase, Keisuke, Yamanaka, Takashi
Mycorrhiza 2018 v.28 no.7 pp. 679-690
Pinus densiflora, Quercus acutissima, Quercus serrata, Tuber japonicum, ectomycorrhizae, host plants, host range, inoculation methods, pot culture, seedlings, spores, trees, truffles, Europe, Japan
Modern truffle cultivation systems started in Europe in the early 1970s and are now successfully used for several European truffles throughout the world. However, systems for indigenous novel truffle species need to be developed in several regions, especially where truffle cultivation has not been attempted so far, such as in Japan. Recently, two new and one known truffle species that are expected to be edible were reported from Japan: Tuber japonicum, T. longispinosum, and T. himalayense. Here, we conducted mycorrhization trials between these three truffle species and four native tree species in Japan (Quercus acutissima, Q. phillyraeoides, Q. serrata, and Pinus densiflora) using spore suspension and trap-plant seedling techniques under axenic pot culture conditions to understand their potential host ranges and mycorrhizal morphologies and to determine whether these inoculation methods are applicable for mycorrhization of Japanese truffles with native host plants. Of the 12 combinations, nine were successful for mycorrhization, including both oak and pine trees. The T. japonicum mycorrhiza was characterized by short, needle-shaped cystidia without septa, whereas the two black truffles, T. longispinosum and T. himalayense, were indistinguishable from each other because they shared the same morphological and anatomical characters such as brownish, long cystidia with right angle ramification. These features were similar to related black truffle species. The results of the present study indicate that the inoculation method used for European truffles can also be applied for mycorrhization between Japanese truffle species and compatible native pine and/or oak hosts in Japan.