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Zn(II), Pb(II), and Cd(II) adsorption from aqueous solution by magnetic silica gel: preparation, characterization, and adsorption

Guo, Shuangzhen, Dan, Zhigang, Duan, Ning, Chen, Guanyi, Gao, Wubin, Zhao, Weijie
Environmental science and pollution research international 2018 v.25 no.31 pp. 30938-30948
X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, adsorbents, adsorption, aqueous solutions, cadmium, heavy metals, infrared spectroscopy, ionic strength, lead, magnetism, metal ions, models, moieties, pH, protons, scanning electron microscopes, scanning electron microscopy, silica gel, sorption isotherms, surface area, surveys, thermogravimetry, transmission electron microscopes, transmission electron microscopy, wastewater, zinc
A novel magnetic silica gel adsorbent (Fe₃O₄-Si-COOH) was successfully prepared by introducing carboxyl group in situ to improve the performance for Pb(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II) adsorption. Infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA), the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) characterizations suggested that Fe₃O₄-Si-COOH has been successfully prepared. The adsorption performance was evaluated by batch experiments with different initial concentrations, ionic strength, contact time, and pH. The adsorption kinetics data followed pseudo-second-order model and exhibited a three-stage intraparticle diffusion mode. Isothermal adsorption equilibrium data were best fitted by the Freundlich model and the adsorption capacity were 155, 110, and 93 mg/g (initial concentration 210 mg/L) for Pb(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II), respectively. The result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) survey spectrum suggested that the main adsorption mechanism is that the H⁺ of carboxyl groups exchanged with heavy metal ions in the adsorption processes. In addition, the adsorbed Fe₃O₄-Si-COOH could be regenerated and the adsorption capacity of reused Fe₃O₄-Si-COOH could maintain 80.3% after five cycles. Hence, the Fe₃O₄-Si-COOH could be a kind of potential material for removing Pb(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II) from wastewater. Graphical abstract