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Assessment of yeasts for apple juice fermentation and production of cider volatile compounds

Lorenzini, Marilinda, Simonato, Barbara, Slaghenaufi, Davide, Ugliano, Maurizio, Zapparoli, Giacomo
Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + [i.e. und] Technologie 2019 v.99 pp. 224-230
Candida zemplinina, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, acetates, apple juice, apples, ciders, fatty acids, fermentation, phenylethyl alcohol, principal component analysis, volatile compounds, wine yeasts
At present, yeasts suitable for apple juice fermentation to produce cider have received scarce attention with respect to wine yeasts. In this study, Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces strains were investigated for their capacity to ferment apple juice and to influence the volatile compound production in cider. In a first fermentation trial, seven out of 18 yeasts, belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Hanseniaspora osmophila, H. uvarum, Starmerella bacillaris and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, were selected according to their fermentative performance. The effects of these strains on the volatile composition of cider, produced in a second apple fermentation trial, were then evaluated. Significant differences on the production of alcohols, esters and fatty acids were observed. Large amounts of 2-phenylethanol were found in S. uvarum cider. Hanseniaspora uvarum was the greatest producer of hexyl and isoamyl acetate among non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Ciders were well discriminated by principal component analysis. This study provides insights into the actual capacity to produce volatile compounds that the different yeast species that could be used in single or mixed apple juice fermentation for cider production.