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Potential application of infrared assisted freeze drying (IRAFD) for banana snacks: Drying kinetics, energy consumption, and texture
- Khampakool, Apinya, Soisungwan, Salinee, Park, Sung Hee
- Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + [i.e. und] Technologie 2019 v.99 pp. 355-363
- bananas, electric power, energy, freeze drying, freezing, hardness, models, snacks, texture, weight loss
- Efficacy of infrared assisted freeze drying (IRAFD) was investigated to produce banana snacks. Infrared (IR) lamp was installed into freeze dryer. Various IRAFD trials including the continuous IRAFD-2.7 kW/m2, IRAFD-2.7 kW/m2 at 20% weight reduction (WR), and IRAFD-2.7 kW/m2 at 20% WR to 4.0 kW/m2 at 0 °C were performed. Continuous IRAFD could significantly reduce the drying time up to 213 min compared to freeze drying (FD) (696 min), resulting in more than 70% time saving. Drying kinetics of IRAFD trials were estimated using exponential, Page, and diffusion models. Page model best explained the drying kinetics of IRAFD banana. FD consumed the highest total electrical energy (27.0 × 103 kJ), whereas, continuous IRAFD-2.7 kW/m2 saved the electrical energy consumption up to 8.4 × 103 kJ with rapid drying. IRAFD improved the crispness of banana snacks. This study demonstrated the potential of IRAFD to produce the high-quality banana snack and to save significant time and energy during drying.