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Potentiality of PARAFAC approaches for simultaneous determination of N-acetylcysteine and acetaminophen based on the second-order data obtained from differential pulse voltammetry

Farahani, Khalil Zarnousheh, Benvidi, Ali, Rezaeinasab, Masoud, Abbasi, Saleheh, Abdollahi-Alibeik, Mohammad, Rezaeipoor-Anari, Ali, Zarchi, Mohammad Ali Karimi, Abadi, Seyed Shahab Addin Darbandizadeh Mohammad
Talanta 2019 v.192 pp. 439-447
acetaminophen, acetylcysteine, adverse effects, blood sampling, blood serum, boron compounds, carbon electrodes, electrochemistry, electron transfer, factor analysis, fluorides, heart, high performance liquid chromatography, lungs, nanoparticles, overdose, oxidation, silica, urticaria
N-acetylcysteine (N-AC) has widespread application such as pharmaceutical drug and nutritional supplement. Its adverse effects are rash, urticaria, and itchiness and large doses of N-AC could potentially cause damage to the heart and lungs. Therefore, in this work, a sensitive voltammetric sensor based on a carbon paste electrode modified with silica nano particles (i.e. Mobil Composition of Matter (No. 41) modified with Boron Trifluoride or BF3@MCM-41) with a combination of 4,4′-dihydroxybiphenyl (DHB) (BF3@MCM-41/DHB/CPE) was designed for determination of N-AC. The electrochemical oxidation of N-AC was examined using various techniques such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Under the optimum conditions, some parameters such as electron transfer coefficient (α) and heterogeneous rate constant (ks) were estimated for N-AC. Due to the use of N-AC for the treatment of acetaminophen (AC) overdose, the application of modified electrode was investigated for the simultaneous determination of N-AC and AC in blood serum and tablet samples. Since, the signals of these species overlap and due to the presence of interfering species in blood samples, the simultaneous determination of mentioned species is difficult or impossible. To overcome this challenge, parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was used for the analysis of the complex matrices to obtain the spectral profile of each component and interference. To achieve this goal, electrochemical second-order data were generated using a simple change in pulse height of differential pulse voltammetry. The results of the presently proposed strategy for the real samples analysis are similar to those obtained with HPLC. Thus, the proposed method has acceptable performance for simultaneous determination of the two species in real samples.