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Boar sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the presence of egg yolk soluble and low density lipoprotein fractions during cooling

Orrego, Manuel T., Melian, Sofía I., Montenegro, Judith, Cimato, Alejandra N., Cisale, Humberto, Piehl, Lidia L.
Theriogenology 2019 v.123 pp. 151-158
boars, cryopreservation, cryoprotectants, egg yolk, freezing, granules, low density lipoprotein, phosphorylation, protein composition, protocols, sperm capacitation, sperm motility, sperm quality, temperature, tyrosine
Increased protein tyrosine phosphorylation and the appearance of a phosphorylated protein of 32 kD (p32) are reported among the capacitation-like changes in cryopreserved boar sperm. Egg yolk freezing extenders are composed by two fractions: insoluble granules and soluble plasma, which contains the low density lipoproteins (LDL) proposed as responsible for the egg yolk cryoprotective action. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of complete egg yolk and its insoluble, soluble and LDL fractions on boar sperm quality and protein tyrosine phosphorylation after the first stage of a standard cryopreservation protocol. Semen samples in Androstar® Plus diluent were centrifuged and resuspended in the different egg yolk extenders. Temperature was decreased from 17 °C to 5 °C and sperm quality, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and protein pattern were analyzed. Results showed that complete egg yolk as well as soluble and LDL egg yolk fractions maintained sperm quality after temperature decrease. Cooling without any lipid component or in the presence of the insoluble fraction, significantly reduced sperm motility. About sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation analysis, the p32 band appeared before treatments or after cooling in Androstar® Plus diluent. Complete egg yolk and its insoluble fraction interfered with sperm tyrosine phosphorylation even after cells were extensively washed. Analysis of extenders revealed a high amount of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins in the insoluble fraction, which may have co-precipitate with sperm in experiments. Samples submitted to temperature decrease from 17 °C to 5 °C in the presence of soluble and LDL egg yolk fractions in Androstar® Plus diluent did not show any change in the p32 band associated with sperm capacitation. However, a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein of 33 kD present in clarified egg yolk was also observed in sperm treated with this extender. Protein transference from plasma and LDL egg yolk extenders was also observed in sperm protein profile. Results suggested that soluble and LDL fractions might have a protective action preventing sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation during cooling from 17 °C to 5 °C. Further studies are needed to expand the knowledge of the LDL protection mechanism as well as to determine the possible benefits of clarified egg yolk in freezing protocols.