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A biotechnological approach to immunotherapy: Antivenom against Crotalus durissus cascavella snake venom produced from biodegradable nanoparticles

Gláucia-Silva, Fiamma, Torres-Rêgo, Manoela, Rocha Soares, Karla Samara, Damasceno, Igor Zumba, Tambourgi, Denise Vilarinho, Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio da, Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de Freitas
International journal of biological macromolecules 2018 v.120 pp. 1917-1924
Crotalus durissus, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, aluminum hydroxide, animal models, antibodies, antivenoms, biodegradability, chitosan, death, gelation, immunization, mice, nanoparticles, proteins, snake bites, snake venoms, snakes, tropical diseases, vaccines, Brazil
Snakebite envenoming is a tropical disease neglected worldwide. In Brazil, the Crotalus durissus cascavella (CDC) snake belongs to a genus with venom of highest lethality. A search for new immunoadjuvants aimed to expand the therapeutic alternatives to improve vaccines and antivenom. This approach proposed to produce small and narrow-sized cationic CDC venom-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CHNP) able to induce antibody response against the CDC venom. The ionic gelation method induced the formation of stable and slightly smooth spherical nanoparticles (<160 nm) with protein loading efficiency superior to 90%. The interactions between venom proteins and CHNP assessed using FT-IR spectroscopy corroborated with the in vitro release behavior of proteins from nanoparticles. Finally, the immunization animal model using BALB/c mice demonstrated the higher effectiveness of CDC venom-loaded CHNP compared to aluminum hydroxide, a conventional immunoadjuvant. Thus, CHNPs loaded with CDC venom exhibited a promising biotechnological approach to immunotherapy.