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Binding of anticancer drug daunomycin to parallel G-quadruplex DNA [d-(TTGGGGT)]4 leads to thermal stabilization: A multispectroscopic investigation

Tariq, Zia, Barthwal, Ritu
International journal of biological macromolecules 2018 v.120 pp. 1965-1974
DNA, Tetrahymena, absorbance, anthracyclines, antineoplastic agents, circular dichroism spectroscopy, computer simulation, enzyme inhibitors, fluorescence, guanine, mechanism of action, neoplasm cells, neoplasms, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, nucleotide sequences, oncogenes, telomerase, telomeres, thermal stability, wavelengths
Guanine rich DNA sequences form four stranded G-quadruplex structures found in telomeric DNA and oncogene promoters. Small molecules binding and stabilizing the G-quadruplex disrupt telomere maintenance and gene regulation, thereby limiting the proliferation of cancer cells. The anti-cancer drug daunomycin binds to both G-quadruplex DNA and duplex DNA. We have undertaken a study of interaction of daunomycin to [d-(TTGGGGT)]4 comprising telomeric DNA sequence from Tetrahymena thermophilia to understand the mechanisms of its action. Absorbance, fluorescence and circular dicroism spectra show significant change on interaction with no change in wavelength maxima. The daunomycin dimers present in free state in solution are disrupted on binding. Presence of all sequential short inter proton distance contacts in nuclear magnetic resonance spectra confirm external binding. The observed inter molecular nuclear Overhauser enhancements, changes in chemical shift and molecular docking studies establish well defined binding of daunomycin at two different sites of G-quadruplex DNA. Thermal stabilization of [d-(TTGGGGT)]4 by 10–15 °C upon daunomycin binding is expected to reduce access of telomerase to its functional site at telomeres. The present studies on mode of action pave the way for alternate derivatives/analogues by chemical modification of anthracyclines to arrive at a more potent telomerase inhibitor.