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Effectiveness of pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine against pneumonia in children: A cluster-randomised trial

Kilpi, T.M., Jokinen, J., Puumalainen, T., Nieminen, H., Ruokokoski, E., Rinta-Kokko, H., Traskine, M., Lommel, P., Moreira, M., Ruiz-Guinazu, J., Borys, D., Schuerman, L., Palmu, A.A.
Vaccine 2018 v.36 no.39 pp. 5891-5901
Haemophilus influenzae, X-radiation, burden of disease, chest, childhood, children, confidence interval, hepatitis, hospitals, infants, otitis media, patients, pneumonia, vaccination, vaccines
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have potential to prevent significant proportion of childhood pneumonia. Finnish Invasive Pneumococcal disease vaccine trial was designed to assess the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the 10-valent pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10) against several outcomes. We now report results for pneumonia.In this nationwide, cluster-randomised, double-blind trial, children younger than 19 months received PHiD-CV10 in 52 clusters or hepatitis vaccines as control in 26 clusters. Infants younger than 7 months at the first vaccination received either 3+1 or 2+1 vaccination schedule, children aged 7–11 months received 2+1, and those 12–18 months of age two-dose schedule. All hospitalizations and outpatient visits to hospital associated with ICD-10 codes compatible with pneumonia were identified through the National Care Register and 1–3 frontal chest X-ray images per event were collected. External readers who were unaware of the patients’ vaccination status retrospectively interpreted the images. The evaluated outcomes were hospital-diagnosed, hospital-treated pneumonia as primary diagnosis, and radiologically confirmed pneumonia during the blinded, intention-to-treat follow-up period from the first vaccination to the end of 2011. Total VE was calculated as 1 minus rate ratio of all pneumonia episodes.47 366 children were enrolled from February 2009, to October 2010. VE against all episodes of hospital-diagnosed pneumonia was 27% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14%, 38%), 32% (95% CI: 3%, 52%), and 23% (95% CI: −5%, 44%) in subjects enrolled at age <7, 7–11, and 12–18 months, respectively. Corresponding rate reductions were 3.4, 4.7, and 2.5 per 1000 person-years. VE estimates against pneumonia with alveolar consolidation or pleural effusion (WHO criteria) in the three cohorts were 45% (95% CI: 26%, 60%), 56% (95% CI: 14%, 77%), and 48% (95% CI: 2%, 73%), respectively.PHiD-CV10 vaccination remarkably reduced disease burden due to pneumonia in infants and young children.Main trial NCT00861380, nested carriage and otitis media trial NCT00839254 (