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Simultaneous identification of the wood types in aged cachaças and their adulterations with wood extracts using digital images and SPA-LDA

de Sousa Fernandes, David Douglas, de Almeida, Valber Elias, Fontes, Marcelo Marques, de Araújo, Mário César Ugulino, Véras, Germano, Diniz, Paulo Henrique Gonçalves Dias
Food chemistry 2019 v.273 pp. 77-84
algorithms, barrels, color, digital images, discriminant analysis, distilled spirits, flavor, odors, prices, wood, wood extractives, Brazil
Cachaça is a sugarcane-derived alcoholic spirit exclusively produced in Brazil. It can be aged in barrels made from different types of wood, similar to other distilled beverages. The choice of wood type promotes different effects on color, flavor, aroma and consequently the price of cachaça, favoring fraudulent activities. This paper proposes the simultaneous identification of different wood types in aged cachaças and their adulterations with wood extracts using a digital-image based methodology employing color histograms obtained from digital images associated with pattern recognition methods, without any sample preparation step. Linear Discriminant Analysis, coupled with Successive Projections Algorithm for variable selection (SPA-LDA), obtained the best results, reaching accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity rates higher than 90.0% in the test set. This can be a rapid and reliable tool to prevent fraudulent labeling; ensuring that what is on the label reflects the quality of aged cachaças, affording security to consumers and regulatory agencies.