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Greener synthesis of 1,2-butylene carbonate from CO2 using graphene-inorganic nanocomposite catalyst
- Onyenkeadi, Victor, Kellici, Suela, Saha, Basudeb
- Energy 2018 v.165 pp. 867-876
- X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, adsorption, carbon dioxide, carbonates, catalysts, catalytic activity, cycloaddition reactions, desorption, nanocomposites, nitrogen, porosity, solvents, surface area, transmission electron microscopy
- The synthesis of 1,2-butylene carbonate (BC) from cycloaddition reaction of 1,2-butylene oxide (BO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) was investigated using several heterogeneous catalysts in the absence of organic solvent. Continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis (CHFS) has been employed as a rapid and cleaner route for the synthesis of a highly efficient graphene-inorganic heterogeneous catalyst, ceria-lanthana-zirconia/graphene nanocomposite, represented as CeLaZr/GO. The heterogeneous catalysts have been characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption (BET for measuring the surface area/pore size distribution). Ceria-lanthana-zirconia/graphene nanocomposite catalyst (CeLaZr/GO) exhibited high catalytic activity as compared to other reported heterogeneous catalysts in the absence of any organic solvent with a selectivity of 76% and 64% yield of 1,2-butylene carbonate at the reaction conditions of 408 K, 75 bar in 20 h.