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Removal of cadmium from rice by Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation
- Zhai, Qixiao, Guo, Yue, Tang, Xiaoshu, Tian, Fengwei, Zhao, Jianxin, Zhang, Hao, Chen, Wei
- Food control 2019 v.96 pp. 357-364
- Lactobacillus plantarum, cadmium, crystal structure, developing countries, fermentation, food safety, foods, gelatinization, lipids, physicochemical properties, rice, rice starch, starch granules
- Cadmium (Cd) contamination in rice has become a serious food safety concern in developing countries. Microbial fermentation has been demonstrated as a promising method for removing Cd from rice. The present study evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation on Cd levels in rice and analyzed the modes of Cd removal. Fermentation by 10 strains of L. plantarum exhibited varied Cd removal capacities, which could be related to variations in the Cd-binding and acid-producing abilities of the strains. In light of the relatively superior Cd removal (over 80%) using fermentation by L. plantarum CCFM8610, the procedure was optimized, and the predicted Cd removal percentage reached 93.37%. L. plantarum CCFM8610 fermentation induced alterations in the physicochemical properties of rice such as reductions in the protein, lipid, and ash contents; appearance of a porous micro-morphology; alteration of the crystal structure of rice starch granules; and improved gelatinization properties. These results suggest that fermentation by L. plantarum strains is an effective means of removing Cd from rice and could be considered as a strategy for the development of Cd-free rice-based foods.