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Zwitterionic codeine‐derived methacrylate monoliths for enantioselective capillary electrochromatography of chiral acids and chiral bases

Carrasco‐Correa, Enrique Javier, Ferri, Martina, Woiwode, Ulrich, Ma, Yubo, Herrero‐Martínez, José Manuel, Ramis‐Ramos, Guillermo, Lindner, Wolfgang, Lämmerhofer, Michael
Electrophoresis 2018 v.39 no.20 pp. 2558-2565
acetylcysteine, acids, anion exchange, beta-adrenergic antagonists, cation exchange, coatings, codeine, crosslinking, electrochromatography, enantiomers, enantioselectivity, epoxides, hydrolysis, models, siloxanes, solutes, solvents, thiols, zwitterions
Thiol‐ene click reaction of N‐acetyl‐L‐cysteine methyl ester to codeine, followed by reaction with allyl isocyanate and hydrolysis to the corresponding zwitterionic chiral selector and its subsequent bonding to the surface of a methacrylate monolith provided a new chiral capillary column for enantiomer separation of chiral acids and chiral bases. First, the epoxy groups of a poly(glycidyl methacrylate‐co‐ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith were converted into amine residues, followed by reaction with allylglycidyl ether. In this way, a spacer arm was bonded to the surface before coating and cross‐linking poly(3‐mercaptopropyl methylsiloxane) (PMPMS) via radical addition (thiol‐ene click reaction) to the surface. In order to improve the performance of the monolithic chiral stationary phase, thio ether and residual thiol groups were oxidized to sulfonyl and sulphonate groups, respectively. This novel chiral stationary phase (CSP) was evaluated by capillary electrochromatography (CEC) using two chiral model compounds, namely N‐3,5‐dinitrobenzoyl‐R,S‐leucine (retained by anion‐exchange mechanism) and mefloquine (by cation‐exchange process). The ion‐exchange retention mechanism on the CSP was characterized for these two counterionic model solutes by varying the mobile phase composition, including the nature of solvents, the concentration of counter‐ions and co‐ions, and the acid‐to‐base ratio. A series of chiral β‐blockers and amino acid derivatives was used to further check the performance of the modified monolith under the optimal conditions. Several enantiomers were baseline resolved with reasonable peak efficiencies (up to 60,000 theoretical plates per meter for the second eluted enantiomer).