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Fiprole insecticide resistance of Laodelphax striatellus: electrophysiological and molecular docking characterization of A2′N RDL GABA receptors

Sheng, Cheng‐Wang, Casida, John E, Durkin, Kathleen A, Chen, Feng, Han, Zhao‐Jun, Zhao, Chun‐Qing
Pest management science 2018 v.74 no.11 pp. 2645-2651
Laodelphax striatellus, Xenopus, computer simulation, cross resistance, crosslinking, electrophysiology, fipronil, gamma-aminobutyric acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors, genes, hydrogen bonding, inhibitory concentration 50, insecticide resistance, insecticides, models, mutation, oocytes, rice, Asia
BACKGROUND: Phenylpyrazole (fiprole) insecticides, including ethiprole, fipronil and flufiprole with excellent activity on rice planthoppers, are very important in Asia but resistance has developed after decades of use. The molecular mechanism of fipronil‐ but not ethiprole‐resistance has been previously studied in rice planthoppers. In our laboratory, a small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus strain with ethiprole‐resistance was cultured and the molecular mechanisms of ethiprole resistance and of cross‐resistance among fiprole insecticides were investigated. RESULTS: Ethiprole‐resistant L. striatellus has >5000‐fold resistance compared to the susceptible strain, and exhibits around 200‐fold cross‐resistance with fipronil and flufiprole. RDL genes were isolated from susceptible and ethiprole‐resistant L. striatellus and expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Electrophysiological studies showed fiprole insecticides inhibited γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA)‐induced current with IC₅₀ = 0.1–1.4 μM to LsRDL‐S homomers. In LsRDL‐R with A2′N mutation, only 1–13% inhibition was observed on treatment with 10 μM ethiprole, fipronil or flufiprole. Homology models indicate A2′N mutation allows crosslinking hydrogen bonding between Asn sidechains at the 2′ position around the channel pore, blocking insecticides from interacting near this position. In contrast, insecticides showed favorable binding near A2′ in wild‐type L. striatellus. CONCLUSION: Cross‐resistance is increasing for fiprole insecticides in L. striatellus and management strategies are necessary to minimize resistance. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry