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Extraction, optimization, and characterization of lipids from spent hens: An unexploited sustainable bioresource
- Safder, Muhammad, Temelli, Feral, Ullah, Aman
- Journal of cleaner production 2019 v.206 pp. 622-630
- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, biomass, differential scanning calorimetry, fatty acid composition, flame ionization, industrial byproducts, linoleic acid, lipid content, magnetism, market value, mass spectrometry, microwave treatment, moieties, oleic acid, palmitic acid, phase transition, poultry industry, quantitative analysis, response surface methodology, spent hens, standard deviation, temperature, thermal degradation, thermogravimetry
- Spent hen, a poultry industry by-product with little market value and high lipid content, can be used as a new and sustainable biomass source for lipid production. This study focused on conventional extraction methods and compared them with the microwave-assisted extraction of lipids from the spent hen. Over 95% of the lipids were recovered within 10 min using microwaves. Factors affecting the extraction conditions, including extraction time, temperature, and the solvent-to-feed ratio on the lipid extraction yield were studied using response surface methodology. To account for the low sample size, parametric bootstrapping was used with a replacement approach. Data in all combinations were bootstrapped 10,000 times, which showed a decrease in standard deviation. Fatty acid profiles of extracts obtained in different conditions were investigated using gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry and a flame ionization detector for qualitative and quantitative analysis, respectively. The lipids predominantly contained oleic (46%), linoleic (∼22%), and palmitic (∼23%) acids. Proton nuclear magnetic spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize different functional groups in the lipids. The phase transitions and thermal degradation behavior of lipids were determined using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively.