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Impact of chlorine exposure time on disinfection byproduct formation in the presence of iopamidol and natural organic matter during chloramination
- Ackerson, Nana Osei B., Killinger, Alexis H., Liberatore, Hannah K., Ternes, Thomas A., Plewa, Michael J., Richardson, Susan D., Duirk, Stephen E.
- Journal of environmental sciences (China) 2019 v.78 pp. 204-214
- X-radiation, ammonia, ammonium chloride, byproducts, chlorine, chloroform, disinfection, drinking water, exposure duration, iodine, organic matter, pH, toxicity, trichloroacetic acid
- Chloramines, in practice, are formed onsite by adding ammonia to chlorinated drinking water to achieve the required disinfection. While regulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are reduced during chloramine disinfection, other DBPs such as iodinated (iodo-) DBPs, that elicit greater toxicity are formed. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of prechlorination time on the formation of both halogen-specific total organic halogen (TOX) and iodo/chlorinated (chloro-) DBPs during prechlorination/chloramination in source waters (SWs) containing iopamidol, an X-ray contrast medium. Barberton SW (BSW) and Cleveland SW (CSW) containing iopamidol were prechlorinated for 5–60 min and afterwards chloraminated for 72 hr with ammonium chloride. Chlorine contact time (CCT) did not significantly impact total organic iodine (TOI) concentrations after prechlorination or chloramination. Concentrations of total organic chlorine (TOCl) formed during prechlorination did not significantly change regardless of pH and prechlorination time, while TOCl appeared to decrease after 72 hr chloramination period. Dichloroiodomethane (CHCl2I) formation during prechlorination did not exhibit any significant trends as a function of pH or CCT, but after chloramination, significant increases were observed at pHs 6.5 and 7.5 with respect to CCT. Iodo-HAAs were not formed during prechlorination but were detected after chloramination. Significant quantities of chloroform (CHCl3) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) were formed during prechlorination but formation ceased upon ammonia addition. Therefore, prechlorination studies should measure TOX and DBP concentrations prior to ammonia addition to obtain data regarding the initial conditions.