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Estimation of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emission of cotton crop in South Punjab, Pakistan

Imran, Muhammad, Özçatalbaş, Orhan, Bashir, Muhammad Khalid
Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 2020 v.19 no.3 pp. 216-224
agricultural industry, carbon dioxide, cotton, crop production, energy efficiency, farm inputs, farms, greenhouse gas emissions, greenhouse gases, growers, Pakistan
The agricultural sector is a consumer as well as a producer of energy. This study explores the relationship between energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission of cotton crop in Punjab province of Pakistan. Standard energy equivalents megajoules (MJ) were used to measure energy from different inputs and output, similarly, a standard unit kilogram of carbon dioxide equivalent (kg CO₂) was used to estimate direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions from the use of farm inputs. A non-parametric data envelopment analysis was used to estimate the energy efficiency of cotton growers. Farm efficiency analysis tool (FEAT) was used to estimate greenhouse gas emission and its intensity. The results showed that a total of 58, 374.07 MJ ha⁻¹ input energy was used in cotton production, and output energy was calculated as 33,134 MJ ha⁻¹. The results of DEA showed that 33% and 61% farmers were technically and pure technically efficient, respectively. The technical, pure technical and scale efficiency score of the cotton growers were 0.77, 0.90 and 0.85, respectively. Optimum energy requirement was found to be 34,882.65 MJ ha⁻¹ demonstrating that if recommendations are followed 22.65% of input energy can be saved. The total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission was calculated to be 1928 kg CO₂ ha⁻¹. GHG intensity a ratio of kg CO₂ₑq emission per MJ of output energy produced was estimated to be 0.07 kg CO₂/MJ in cotton production. As part of recommendations, energy management in term of efficient, sustainable and economic use of energy in cotton is highly recommended.