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Variation in allelic frequencies at loci associated with kernel weight and their effects on kernel weight-related traits in winter wheat

Li, Teng, Liu, Hongwei, Mai, Chunyan, Yu, Guangjun, Li, Huili, Meng, Lingzhi, Jian, Dawei, Yang, Li, Zhou, Yang, Zhang, Hongjun, Li, Hongjie
The crop journal 2019 v.7 no.1 pp. 30-37
agricultural sciences, alleles, analysis of variance, cultivars, gene frequency, genotype, grain yield, loci, marker-assisted selection, seeds, winter wheat, China
Knowledge of allelic frequencies at loci associated with kernel weight and effects on kernel weight-related traits is crucial for yield improvement in wheat. Kernel weight-related traits were evaluated in 200 Chinese winter wheat cultivars (lines) grown at the Xinxiang Experimental Station, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xinxiang in Henan Province, for three consecutive years from 2014 to 2016. Alleles associated with kernel weight at nine loci, TaCKX6-D1, TaCwi-A1, TaCWI-4A, TaGS1a, TaGS5-A1, TaGS3-3A, TaGW2-6A, TaSus2-2B, and TaTGW6-A1, were determined for all cultivars (lines). ANOVA showed that genotypes, years and their interactions had significant effects on thousand-kernel weight (TKW), kernel length (KL) and kernel width (KW). The overall mean frequencies of alleles conferring high and low TKW at the nine loci were 65.9% and 33.4%, with the ranges of 37.0%–85.0% and 13.5%–63.0% for single loci. The frequencies of high-TKW alleles were over 50.0% at eight of the loci. Genotypes at each locus with the high-TKW allele had higher TKW than those with the low-TKW allele. The high-TKW allele Hap-H at the TaSus2-2B locus can be preferably used to increase grain yield due to its high TKW (49.32 g). A total of 18 main allelic combinations (ACs) at nine loci were detected. Three ACs (AC1–AC3) had significantly higher TKW than AC6 with high-TKW alleles at all nine loci even though they contained some low-TKW alleles. This indicated that other loci controlling kernel weight were present in the high-TKW cultivars. This work provides important information for parental selection and marker-assisted selection for breeding.