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CNTs–C@TiO2 composites with 3D networks as anode material for lithium/sodium ion batteries

Chen, Jin, Wang, Enqi, Mu, Jiechen, Ai, Bing, Zhang, Tiezhu, Ge, Wenqing, Zhang, Lipeng
Journal of materials science 2019 v.54 no.1 pp. 592-604
Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, anodes, carbon, electrochemistry, ethylene glycol, lithium, lithium batteries, polymerization, scanning electron microscopy, sodium, thermogravimetry, titanium dioxide
CNTs–C@TiO₂ composite with 3D networks as electrode has been synthesized for lithium ion batteries (LIBs)/sodium ion batteries (SIBs) by a traditional solvothermal process. The composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, field emission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The continuous 3D conductive networks, which consisted of acid-treated CNTs, provided numerous attachment sites for TiO₂ particles and carbon layers (similar to a shell) produced by the Ti⁴⁺-induced polymerization of ethylene glycol, thereby promoting electron and ion transfer. The composites contained 10.09 wt% CNTs (excellent conductor) and 12.75 wt% pyrolytic carbon. The Raman spectra confirmed the high degree of graphitization of the composites, and the improved conductivity resulted in outstanding electrochemical behavior. The electrochemical performance in the Li⁺/Na⁺ storage of CNTs–C@TiO₂ composites was greatly enhanced, as revealed by this material’s outstanding capacity of 205 mA h g⁻¹ at a current density of 0.1 A g⁻¹ after 200 scanning cycles for LIBs and 148 mA h g⁻¹ at 0.1 A g⁻¹ over 100 cycles for SIBs.