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Streptococclcs Suis Infection in Swine: A Retrospective Study of 256 Cases. Part II. Clinical Signs, Gross and Microscopic Lesions, and Coexisting Microorganisms

Reams, Rachel Y., Glickman, Lawrence T., Harrington, Daniel D., Thacker, H. Leon, Bowersock, Terry L.
Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation 1994 v.6 no.3 pp. 326-334
Escherichia coli, Mycoplasma, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus suis, arthritis, bacteria, bacterial culture, brain, bronchopneumonia, encephalitis, heart, inflammation, lungs, meningitis, myocarditis, pericarditis, peritonitis, pleurisy, retrospective studies, serotypes, signs and symptoms (animals and humans), swine, swine diseases, vasculitis, Indiana
A retrospective study of 256 cases of naturally acquired Streptococcus suis infections in swine submitted to the Indiana Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory from 1985 to 1989 was undertaken to describe the clinical signs, lesions, and coexisting organisms associated with S. suis serotypes 1–8 and 1/2. Infected pigs generally had clinical signs and gross lesions referable to either the respiratory system or to the central nervous system (CNS), but not both. Neurologic signs were inversely related to gross lesions in the respiratory tract (R ² = −0.19, P = 0.003), as were respiratory signs and gross lesions in the CNS (R ² = −0.19, P = 0.003). Suppurative bronchopneumonia was the most common gross lesion observed (55.2%, overall). Fibrinous and/or suppurative pleuritis, epicarditis, pericarditis, arthritis, peritonitis, and polyserositis were also reported. In 68% of the pigs, other bacteria in addition to S. suis were isolated. Escherichia coli (35.0%) and Pasteurella multocida (30.0%) were the most commonly recovered bacterial agents. Mycoplasma and viral agents were identified less often, and their role in the development of streptococcosis was difficult to assess. In pigs infected with serotypes 2–5, 7, 8, and 1/2, suppurative meningitis with suppurative or nonsuppurative encephalitis, suppurative bronchopneumonia, fibrinopurulent epicarditis, multifocal myocarditis, and cardiac vasculitis were the most common microscopic lesions observed, whereas pigs infected with serotype 1 generally presented with suppurative meningitis and interstitial pneumonia. Microscopic lesions were morphologically similar among serotypes and were also similar to those reported with other pyogenic bacteria. The distribution of clinical signs and the gross and microscopic lesions in pigs infected with S. suis varied among serotypes. However, these differences were not statistically significant and could not be used to distinguish between the various serotypes. These findings suggest that in pigs infected with S. suis, suppurative or fibrinopurulent inflammation in brain, heart, lungs, and serosae predominates and that bacterial culture is needed to confirm a diagnosis of streptococcosis in swine and to differentiate this disease from those caused by other pyogenic bacteria.