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Cranberry xyloglucan structure and inhibition of Escherichia coli adhesion to epithelial cells

Arland T. Jr. Hotchkiss, Alberto Nuñez, Gary D. Strahan, Hoa K. Chau, André K. White, Jannie P. J. Marais, Kellie Hom, Malathi S. Vakkalanka, Rong Di, Kit L., Christina Khoo
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2015 v.63 no.23 pp. 5622-5633
Escherichia coli O157, adhesion, bacterial adhesion, bioactive properties, bladder, colon, cranberries, epithelial cells, fimbriae, fruit juices, fruit pulp, humans, maceration, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, oligosaccharides, pentoses, polygalacturonase, proanthocyanidins, tandem mass spectrometry, urinary tract diseases, xyloglucans
Cranberry juice has been recognized as a treatment for urinary tract infections on the basis of scientific reports of proanthocyanidin anti-adhesion activity against Escherichia coli as well as from folklore. Xyloglucan oligosaccharides were detected in cranberry juice and the residue remaining following commercial juice extraction that included pectinase maceration of the pulp. A novel xyloglucan was detected through tandem mass spectrometry analysis of an ion at m/z 1055 that was determined to be a branched, three hexose, four pentose oligosaccharide consistent with an arabino-xyloglucan structure. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis provided through-bond correlations for the α-L-Araf (1->2) α-D-Xylp (1->6) β-D-Glcp sequence, proving the S-type cranberry xyloglucan structure. Cranberry xyloglucan-rich fractions inhibited the adhesion of E. coli CFT073 and UTI89 strains to T24 human bladder epithelial cells and that of E. coli O157:H7 to HT29 human colonic epithelial cells. SSGG xyloglucan oligosaccharides represent a new cranberry bioactive component with E. coli anti-adhesion activity and high affinity for type 1 fimbriae.