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Detection of the G3 genotype of Echinococcus granulosus from hydatid cysts of Chilean cattle using COX1and ND1mitochondrial markers

Espinoza, Sandra, Salas, Ana María, Vargas, Alex, Freire, Victoria, Diaz, Eric, Sánchez, Gittith, Venegas, Juan
Parasitology research 2014 v.113 no.1 pp. 139-147
Echinococcus granulosus, NAD (coenzyme), NADH dehydrogenase, cattle, cytochrome-c oxidase, genes, genotype, hydatids, intermediate hosts, parasites, phylogeny, polymerase chain reaction, single nucleotide polymorphism
For a deeper understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of Echinococcus genotypes and species in different intermediate hosts, we analyzed samples from human and bovine hydatid cysts. For this, segments of the cytochrome oxidase (COX1) and NADH dehydrogenase (ND1) mitochondrial genes were used. To obtain sufficient amounts of the ND1 marker to be sequenced properly, a new variant of the PCR assay was implemented. Phylogenetic analysis with both markers showed that most of the analyzed samples correspond to genotype G1. However, a sample from cysts of a bovine lung (Q21), with the COX1 marker, was grouped in a node together with a sample belonging to genotype G3. In the phylogenetic tree obtained with the ND1 marker, this sample was grouped with sequences of genotypes G3, G2, and G4. Analyzing the single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) sites of both markers, it was observed that the Q21 sequence is almost identical to the G3 sequence and differ in only one SNP from the G2 sequence, and is completely different from G4. These results are noteworthy, since neither G2 nor G3 genotypes have been described previously in Chile, raising the possibility that the G3 genotype is present in these latitudes. This information is highly relevant; it can be employed to uncover additional unknown details of transmission cycles of this important parasite.