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Genetic diversity, core collection and breeding history of Pleurotus ostreatus in China

Li, Jing, Liu, Xiao-Bin, Zhao, Zhi-Wei, Yang, Zhu L.
Mycoscience 2019 v.60 no.1 pp. 14-24
Pleurotus ostreatus, alleles, domestication, genetic background, genetic variation, hybridization, microsatellite repeats, mushrooms, China, Europe
Pleurotus ostreatus is one of the most widespread and favourably cultivated mushrooms in China. The cultivated strains of this species have been frequently exchanged domestically and internationally, but no detailed breeding history has been documented. The frequent domestic and international exchange of strains combined with a non-detailed historical documentation of breeding might have led to confusion about strain names and genetic background. In this study, 91 strains of P. ostreatus, including 57 cultivated and 34 wild strains, were analysed using 21 simple sequence repeat markers developed from the genomic sequence of “P. cf. floridanus”. Among the cultivated strains, 46 were found to possess different allelic patterns. The remaining 11 strains were clustered into five groups, each with their own private alleles, suggesting that 10.5% (6/57) of the cultivated strains were previously labelled with improper names. Our analyses indicate that wild strains harbored greater genetic diversity than the cultivated strains. With regard to the cultivation history of P. ostreatus, the cultivated strains in China have three sources: direct introduction from Europe, domestication from wild strains from China, or hybridisation of the European and Chinese strains. Furthermore, we propose a core collection of P. ostreatus with 34 strains, including 13 wild and 21 cultivated strains. The allele retention proportion of the core collection for the entire collection was 100%.