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A sequential separation strategy for facile isolation and comprehensive analysis of human urine N-glycoproteome

Huo, Bianbian, Chen, Mingli, Chen, Junjie, Li, Yuanyuan, Zhang, Wanjun, Wang, Jianhua, Qin, Weijie, Qian, Xiaohong
Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 2018 v.410 no.28 pp. 7305-7312
biomarkers, biomedical research, blood, diagnostic techniques, humans, inflammation, kidneys, ligands, mass spectrometry, monitoring, neoplasms, physiological state, proteins, screening, sediments, ultrafiltration, urine
Urine is an attractive and non-invasive alternative source to tissue, blood or other biofluids for biomarker screening in clinical research. In normal human adult urine, 48% of the total urinary protein is in the sediment, 49% is soluble and the remaining 3% is contained in urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs). The soluble proteins and EV proteins in urine have attracted particular attention in recent years as cancer diagnostics. Furthermore, considering the important role of N-glycoproteins in practically all physiological processes, including regulating receptor-ligand binding, cell-cell interactions, inflammatory response and tumour progression, N-glycoproteome in human urine is an invaluable target for monitoring the physiological status and pathological changes of the kidney and urinary tract. Given the different origins of the soluble proteins and EV proteins in the urine, different N-glycoproteome patterns exist. Therefore, isolating the soluble N-glycoproteins and EV N-glycoproteins for separate analysis will provide a more specific and comprehensive view and provide a deeper understanding of human urinary N-glycoproteome. In this work, we developed a sequential separation method that isolates urinary soluble proteins and EV proteins via stepwise ultrafiltration based on their obvious size difference. A facile and reproducible protein isolation was achieved using this strategy. Subsequent N-glycoproteome enrichment and identification revealed distinct patterns in the two sub-proteomes of urine with more than 60% differential N-glycopeptides. A more comprehensive picture of the urinary N-glycoproteome with close to 1800 identified N-glycopeptides was obtained by this new analysis strategy, therefore making it advantageous for urinary biomarker screening. Graphical abstract A sequential separation method that isolates urinary soluble proteins and EV proteins via stepwise ultrafiltration was developed in this work. Subsequent N-glycopeptides enrichment and mass spectrometry analysis reveals distinct N-glycoproteome patterns in the two sub-proteomes of urine and a deep mapping of close to 1800 N-glycopeptides.