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Microextraction combined with microderivatization for drug monitoring and protein modification analysis from limited blood volume using mass spectrometry

Wu, Ying-Jung, Li, Yi-Shan, Tseng, Wei-Lung, Lu, Chi-Yu
Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 2018 v.410 no.28 pp. 7405-7414
blood cells, blood volume, drugs, humans, ionization, mass spectrometry, microextraction, monitoring, proteins, solvents, therapeutics
In the clinic, ethosuximide is commonly used to treat generalized absence seizures but has recently been repurposed for other diseases. Because of adverse effects and drug interactions, high-throughput therapeutic drug monitoring of ethosuximide is necessary. Microextraction is a simple, effective, rapid, and low consumption of organic solvents method for sample preparation. In this study, microderivatization-increased detection (MDID)-combined microextraction was used to detect ethosuximide by mass spectrometry. Ethosuximide is a difficult to retain and ionize compound in the C18 nano-flow column and ionization interface, respectively. Hence, we developed a fast method for detecting ethosuximide in human plasma by using the MDID strategy (within 2 min). Chemical microderivatization parameters were studied and optimized to increase the sensitivity of ethosuximide detection at trace levels. The linear range for the analysis of ethosuximide in 10 μL plasma was 5–500 μg/mL with a coefficient of determination (r²) ≥ 0.995. The precision and accuracy of intraday and interday analyses of ethosuximide were below 13.0%. Furthermore, modifications of major proteins in plasma and blood cells, induced by ethosuximide, were identified. The proposed method effectively utilizes microliter samples to detect drug plasma concentrations under suitable microextraction procedures toward the eco-friendly goal of low consumption of organic solvents. Graphical abstract ᅟ