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Effect of dark, hard, and vitreous kernel content on protein molecular weight distribution and on milling and breadmaking quality characteristics for hard red spring wheat samples from diverse growing regions

Baasandorj, Tsogtbayar, Ohm, Jae-Bom, Simsek, Senay
Cereal chemistry 2015 v.92 no.6 pp. 570-577
bakery industry, breadmaking, breadmaking quality, crop quality, flour, gliadin, hard red spring wheat, markets, milling, milling quality, molecular weight, protein content, seeds, surveys, water binding capacity, United States
Kernel vitreousness is an important grading characteristic for segregation of sub-classes of hard red spring (HRS) wheat in the U.S. This research investigated the protein molecular weight distribution (MWD), and flour and baking quality characteristics of different HRS wheat market sub-classes. The U.S. Regional Crop Quality Survey samples obtained from six regions for three consecutive growing years were used for sub-class segregation based on the dark, hard, and vitreous (DHV) kernel percentage. Flour milled from HRS wheat with greater percentages of DHV kernel showed the higher water absorption capacity for breadmaking. Protein MWD parameters could be related to the association between DHV kernel level and water absorption. Specifically, flour protein fractions rich in gliadins and high molecular weight polymeric proteins in SDS-unextractable fraction were identified to have significant and positive correlations with both DHV kernel and flour water absorption levels. An example further showed the importance of flour water absorption on potential economical incentives that can be gained with having greater percentage of vitreous kernels. This information could help the flour milling and baking industry to segregate the different sub-classes of HRS wheat with varying DHV content for their intended end-use applications.