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A scale-up field experiment for the monitoring of a burning process using chemical, audio, and video sensors

Stavrakakis, P., Agapiou, A., Mikedi, K., Karma, S., Statheropoulos, M., Pallis, G. C., Pappa, A.
Environmental science and pollution research international 2014 v.21 no.2 pp. 891-900
acoustics, automation, biomass, burning, carbon dioxide, chemical analysis, ecosystems, emissions, field experimentation, fire spread, fires, fuels (fire ecology), monitoring, nitric oxide, oxygen, smoke, thermography
Fires are becoming more violent and frequent resulting in major economic losses and long-lasting effects on communities and ecosystems; thus, efficient fire monitoring is becoming a necessity. A novel triple multi-sensor approach was developed for monitoring and studying the burning of dry forest fuel in an open field scheduled experiment; chemical, optical, and acoustical sensors were combined to record the fire spread. The results of this integrated field campaign for real-time monitoring of the fire event are presented and discussed. Chemical analysis, despite its limitations, corresponded to the burning process with a minor time delay. Nevertheless, the evolution profile of CO₂, CO, NO, and O₂ were detected and monitored. The chemical monitoring of smoke components enabled the observing of the different fire phases (flaming, smoldering) based on the emissions identified in each phase. The analysis of fire acoustical signals presented accurate and timely response to the fire event. In the same content, the use of a thermographic camera, for monitoring the biomass burning, was also considerable (both profiles of the intensities of average gray and red component greater than 230) and presented similar promising potentials to audio results. Further work is needed towards integrating sensors signals for automation purposes leading to potential applications in real situations.