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Physicochemical changes in nontraditional pasta during cooking

de la Peña, Elena, Ohm, Jae-Bom, Simsek, Senay, Manthey, Frank A.
Cereal chemistry 2015 v.92 no.6 pp. 578-587
albumins, cooking, cooking quality, firmness, globulins, glutenins, high performance liquid chromatography, linseed meal, pasta, pasting properties, polymers, protein content, protein solubility, semolina, starch, viscosity, weight, wheat, whole wheat flour
Changes in biochemical components of non-traditional spaghetti during cooking were reflected in the quality of the cooked product. Spaghetti samples were made from traditional and non-traditional formulations including semolina 100%, whole wheat flour 100%, semolina-whole wheat flour (49:51), semolina-flaxseed flour (90:10), whole wheat flour-flaxseed flour (90:10), and semolina-whole wheat flour-flaxseed flour (39:51:10). The flour mixes and spaghetti samples cooked for 0, 2, 4, 10, and 18 min were analyzed for cooking quality and biochemical components including total starch, starch damage, and protein quantity and composition. Spaghetti cooking quality was determined as cooking loss, weight, and firmness of cooked spaghetti. As cooking time progressed, total starch content decreased up to 5.7 percent units, and starch damage increased up to 11.7 percent units in cooked spaghetti. Solubility of protein in spaghetti decreased significantly for all six formulations as cooking progressed. Changes in the starch damage level and total starch content were associated with pasting viscosity, cooking loss, weight, and firmness values of cooked spaghetti recorded during the cooking. Among protein fractions analyzed by size exclusion HPLC, high levels of glutenin polymers and low levels of the albumin and globulin fractions correlated significantly (P<0.05) with low cooking losses and cooked weight, and high cooked firmness indicating the involvement of these proteins in the cooking quality of non-traditional spaghetti.