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Adipose tissue browning in cancer-associated cachexia can be attenuated by inhibition of exosome generation

Hu, Wenjun, Ru, Zeyuan, Xiao, Wen, Xiong, Zhiyong, Wang, Cheng, Yuan, Changfei, Zhang, Xiaoping, Yang, Hongmei
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2018 v.506 no.1 pp. 122-129
adipocytes, adipose tissue, cachexia, enzyme inhibitors, exosomes, lipolysis, lung neoplasms, mice, muscular atrophy, neoplasm cells, skeletal muscle, weight loss
Cancer-associated cachexia (CAC) is a disorder characterized by unintended weight loss due to skeletal muscle wasting and adipose tissue loss. Although muscle atrophy in this condition has been well studied, the mechanisms underlying adipose tissue loss, which include browning, have not been investigated in detail. In this respect, though recent studies have shown that exosomes from cancer cells can promote lipolysis, the link between exosomes from cancer cells and CAC has not been clearly established. In this study, we investigate if exosomes from Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells can induce lipolysis in vitro (in 3T3-L1 adipocytes) and in vivo (in LLC tumor-bearing mice). We find that exosomes from LLC cells do induce lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and that the white adipose tissues of mice with LLC tumors show clear signs of lipolysis. We also find that this lipolysis can be inhibited using the neutral sphingomyelinase inhibitor GW4869. Our results indicate that GW4869 not only inhibits exosome generation and release from LLC cells, but can also inhibit lipolysis induced by LLC-derived exosomes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that LLC tumor-bearing mice treated with GW4869 did not develop CAC. In summary, our results suggest that inhibiting exosome generation and release can inhibit lipolysis and adipose tissue browning, and may be useful as a novel strategy for treating CAC.