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Removal of disinfection byproduct precursors and reduction in additive toxicity of chlorinated and chloraminated waters by ozonation and up-flow biological activated carbon process

Chen, Han, Lin, Tao, Chen, Wei, Tao, Hui, Xu, Hang
Chemosphere 2019 v.216 pp. 624-632
activated carbon, biofiltration, byproducts, chlorination, chlorine, disinfectants, disinfection, dissolved organic carbon, nitrosamines, organic nitrogen, ozonation, public health, risk, toxicity
The variations of disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors and DBPs-associated toxic potencies were evaluated by ozonation, followed by a up-flow biological activated carbon (O3/UBAC) filter treating two reconstituted water samples, featuring either high bromide (105.3 μg/L) or dissolved organic nitrogen (0.73 mg N/L) concentration, respectively. Ozonation contributed to ∼20% decrease in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration at a dosage of 0.7 mg of O3/mg of DOC, but no further reduction in DOC level was observed with an increased dose of 1.0 mg of O3/mg of DOC. When chlorine or preformed monochloramine was used as a disinfectant, UBAC process led to ∼40% reduction in the sum of detected DBP formation potential (FP) due to the removal of precursors at a feasible empty bed contact time of 15 min. The integrated effect of ozonation and UBAC biofiltration decreased the sum of DBP FP by ∼50% including halonitromethanes (THNMs), N-nitrosamines (NAs), and bromate, which increased in the effluent of ozonation. Chloramination produced less DBPs by weight as well as DBPs-associated additive toxic potencies than chlorination. The reduction in additive toxic potencies was generally lower than the removal efficiency of DBP FP after chlor(am)ination of treated waters by O3/UBAC, indicating that the removal of DBPs-associated additive toxic potencies should be focused to better understand on the residual risk to public health in controlling DBP precursors.