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Insecticide activity of Curcuma longa (leaves) essential oil and its major compound α-phellandrene against Lucilia cuprina larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Histological and ultrastructural biomarkers assessment

Chaaban, Amanda, Richardi, Vinicius Sobrinho, Carrer, Alessandra Regina, Brum, Juliana Sperotto, Cipriano, Roger Raupp, Martins, Carlos Eduardo Nogueira, Silva, Mário Antônio Navarro, Deschamps, Cicero, Molento, Marcelo Beltrão
Pesticide biochemistry and physiology 2019 v.153 pp. 17-27
Curcuma longa, Lucilia cuprina, adults, alpha-phellandrene, animal products, biomarkers, biopesticides, brain, digestive tract, essential oils, fat body, histology, insecticidal properties, larvae, leaves, light microscopy, mechanism of action, mortality, myiasis, neurotoxicity, synthetic products, vacuoles
Lucilia cuprina, known as the Australian blowfly, is of high medico-sanitary and veterinary importance due to its ability to induce myiasis. Synthetic products are the most frequent form of fly control, but their indiscriminate use has selected for resistant populations and accounted for high levels of residues in animal products. This study aimed to assess the effect of essential oil from leaves of Curcuma longa (CLLEO), and its major compound α-phellandrene against L. cuprina L3. An additional goal was to determine the morphological alterations in target organs/tissues through ultrastructural assessment (SEM) and light microscopy, as well as macroscopic damage to cuticle induced by CLLEO. Groups of 20 L3 were placed on filter paper impregnated with increasing concentrations of CLLEO (0.15 to 2.86 μL/cm2) and α-phellandrene (0.29 to 1.47 μL/cm2). Efficacy was determined by quantifying L3 mortality 6, 24 and 48 h after contact with CLLEO and by measuring the structural damage to L3. CLLEO and α-phellandrene inhibited adult emergence by 96.22 and 100%, respectively. Macroscopic cuticle damage, appeared as diffuse pigment and darkening of larval body, was caused by both extracts. The SEM revealed dryness on the cuticle surface, distortion of the sensorial structures and general degeneration in treated L3. Furthermore, alterations in target organs (digestive tract, fat body and brain) were noticed and shall be used as biomarkers in future attempts to elucidate the mechanism of action of these compounds. The vacuolar degeneration and pyknotic profiles observed in the brain tissue of treated larvae with both extracts and the decreased motility within <6 h after treatment leads us to suggest a neurotoxic activity of the products. This work demonstrates the potential use of CLLEO and α-phellandrene as bioinsecticides to be used against L. cuprina, representing an ecofriendly alternative for myiasis control in humans and animals.