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Biosynthesis of dendroketose from different carbon sources using in vitro and in vivo metabolic engineering strategies

Yang, Jiangang, Zhu, Yueming, Qu, Ge, Zeng, Yan, Tian, Chaoyu, Dong, Caixia, Men, Yan, Dai, Longhai, Sun, Zhoutong, Sun, Yuanxia, Ma, Yanhe
Biotechnology for biofuels 2018 v.11 no.1 pp. 290
Corynebacterium glutamicum, Escherichia coli, Lewis acids, alkanes, biocatalysts, biosynthesis, carbon, catalytic activity, chemical bonding, cost effectiveness, enzyme kinetics, feedstocks, fermentation, formaldehyde, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, glucose, glycerol, ketones, metabolic engineering, molecular dynamics, phosphates, receptors, simulation models
BACKGROUND: Asymmetric aldol-type C–C bond formation with ketones used as electrophilic receptor remains a challenging reaction for aldolases as biocatalysts. To date, only one kind of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP)-dependent aldolases has been discovered and applied to synthesize branched-chain sugars directly using DHAP and dihydroxyacetone (DHA) as substrate. However, the unstable and high-cost properties of DHAP limit large-scale application. Therefore, biosynthesis of branched-chain sugar from low-cost and abundant carbon sources is essential. RESULTS: The detailed catalytic property of L-rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase (RhaD) and L-fuculose-1-phosphate aldolase (FucA) from Escherichia coli in catalyzing the aldol reactions with DHA as electrophilic receptors was characterized. Furthermore, we calculated the Bürgi–Dunitz trajectory using molecular dynamics simulations, thereby revealing the original sources of the catalytic efficiency of RhaD and FucA. A multi-enzyme reaction system composed of formolase, DHA kinase, RhaD, fructose-1-phosphatase, and polyphosphate kinase was constructed to in vitro produce dendroketose, a branched-chain sugar, from one-carbon formaldehyde. The conversion rate reached 86% through employing a one-pot, two-stage reaction process. Moreover, we constructed two artificial pathways in Corynebacterium glutamicum to obtain this product in vivo starting from glucose or glycerol. Fermentation with glycerol as feedstock produced 6.4 g/L dendroketose with a yield of 0.45 mol/mol glycerol, representing 90% of the maximum theoretical value. Additionally, the dendroketose production reached 36.3 g/L with a yield of 0.46 mol/mol glucose when glucose served as the sole carbon resource. CONCLUSIONS: The detailed enzyme kinetics data of the two DHAP-dependent aldolases with DHA as electrophilic receptors were presented in this study. In addition, insights into this catalytic property were given via in silico simulations. Moreover, the cost-effective synthesis of dendroketose starting from one-, three-, and six-carbon resources was achieved through in vivo and in vitro metabolic engineering strategies. This rare branched-chain ketohexose may serve as precursor to prepare 4-hydroxymethylfurfural and branched-chain alkanes using chemical method.