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Paper-based immunosensors: Current trends in the types and applied detection techniques

Zhu, Guanyang, Yin, Xiaodie, Jin, Danli, Zhang, Bo, Gu, Yingying, An, Yarui
Trends in analytical chemistry 2019 v.111 pp. 100-117
diagnostic techniques, electrochemistry, environmental monitoring, food safety, immunosensors, point-of-care systems
Paper-based immunosensors are regarded as attractive analytical tools for performing point-of-care and in-field assays in medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring and food safety control. In this review, we provide a general overview of the types and applied detection techniques of paper-based immunosensors published in recent years and analyse the current trends in these two aspects. The first section introduces the background of paper-based immunosensors and critically discusses the necessity and distinct features of existing paper-based immunosensors. The second section summarizes the types of current paper-based immunosensors, including paper-based lateral-flow assays (LFAs), microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) and some other device types. In the third section, we describe various detection techniques currently applied in paper-based immunosensors, covering optical, electrochemical and some multiple detection techniques. Finally, current trends and future perspectives are also discussed. We hope this review will be a helpful reference for readers of various fields.