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A newly isolated Chinese virulent genotype GIIb porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strain: Biological characteristics, pathogenicity and immune protective effects as an inactivated vaccine candidate

Liu, Xinsheng, Zhang, Qiaoling, Zhang, Liping, Zhou, Peng, Yang, Jun, Fang, Yuzhen, Dong, Zhaoliang, Zhao, Donghong, Li, Weiyan, Feng, Jiaxin, Cui, Baofeng, Zhang, Yongguang, Wang, Yonglu
Virus research 2019 v.259 pp. 18-27
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, amino acids, blood serum, diarrhea, financial economics, genes, genotype, immunoglobulin G, inactivated vaccines, morbidity, mortality, mutation, neutralizing antibodies, piglets, protective effect, swine diseases, virulence, viruses, China
Since October 2010, severe porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) outbreaks caused by highly virulent PED virus (PEDV) strains have occurred continuously in the Chinese pig population and caused considerable economic losses. Although PEDV vaccines based on classical PEDV strains have been widely used in China in recent years, the morbidity and mortality in piglets remain high. Therefore, virulent genotype GII PEDV strains that are prevalent in the field should be isolated and used to develop next-generation vaccines. In the present study, a Chinese virulent genotype GIIb PEDV strain, CH/HNPJ/2017, was serially propagated in Vero cells for up to 90 passages. The S genes contained typical insertions and deletions that were also found in other recently isolated highly virulent PEDV strains from China and other countries and had two neighboring unique insertion mutations, which resulted in four amino acid changes in the S1 region of passages P10 and P60. Pig infection studies revealed that the CH/HNPJ/2017 strain was highly virulent in piglets, and the median pig diarrhea dose (PDD50) was 7.68 log10PDD50/3 mL. Furthermore, the cell-adapted CH/HNPJ/2017 strain elicited potent serum IgG and neutralizing antibody responses in immunized pigs when it was used as an inactivated vaccine candidate. In addition, the pigs that received the experimental inactivated vaccines were partially protected (3/5) against subsequent viral challenge. In brief, these data indicate that the CH/HNPJ/2017 strain is a promising candidate for developing a safe and effective PEDV vaccine in the future.