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Nutrients, immune system, and exercise: Where will it take us?
- Batatinha, Helena A.P., Biondo, Luana A., Lira, Fabio S., Castell, Linda M., Rosa-Neto, José C.
- Nutrition 2019 v.61 pp. 151-156
- biochemical pathways, energy, exercise, glucose, glutamine, homeostasis, immune system, metabolism, nutrient availability, nutrients
- The immune system plays a key role in controlling infections, repairing injuries, and restoring homeostasis. Immune cells are bioenergetically expensive during activation, which requires a tightly regulated control of the metabolic pathways, which is mostly regulated by two cellular energy sensors: Adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin. The activation and inhibition of this pathways can change cell subtype differentiation. Exercise intensity and duration and nutrient availability (especially glucose and glutamine) tightly regulate immune cell differentiation and function through Adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. Herein, we discuss the innate and adaptive immune-cell metabolism and how they can be affected by exercise and nutrients.