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Environmental conditions shape the biofilm of the Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125

Ricciardelli, Annarita, Casillo, Angela, Vergara, Alessandro, Balasco, Nicole, Corsaro, Maria Michela, Tutino, Maria Luisa, Parrilli, Ermenegilda
Microbiological research 2019 v.218 pp. 66-75
Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, bacteria, biofilm, cold zones, environmental factors, hydrophobicity, models, nutrients, roughness, temperature, Antarctic region, Antarctica
Biofilms are the most widely distributed and successful microbial modes of life. The capacity of bacteria to colonize surfaces provides stability in the growth environment, allows the capturing of nutrients and affords protection from a range of environmental challenges and stress. Bacteria living in cold environments, like Antarctica, can be found as biofilms, even though the mechanisms of how this lifestyle is related to their environmental adaptation have been poorly investigated. In this paper, the biofilm of Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125, one of the model organisms of cold-adapted bacteria, has been characterized in terms of biofilm typology and matrix composition. The characterization was performed on biofilms produced by the bacterium in response to different nutrient abundance and temperatures; in particular, this is the first report describing the structure of a biofilm formed at 0 °C. The results reported demonstrate that PhTAC125 produces biofilms in different amount and endowed with different physico-chemical properties, like hydrophobicity and roughness, by modulating the relative amount of the different macromolecules present in the biofilm matrix. The capability of PhTAC125 to adopt different biofilm structures in response to environment changes appears to be an interesting adaptation strategy and gives the first hints about the biofilm formation in cold environments.