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Enhanced arsenic tolerance and secondary metabolism by modulation of gene expression and proteome profile in Artemisia annua L. after application of exogenous salicylic acid

Kumari, Anjana, Pandey-Rai, Shashi
Plant physiology and biochemistry 2018 v.132 pp. 590-602
Artemisia annua, arsenic, artemisinin, biomass, biosynthesis, carotenoids, chlorophyll, flavonoids, gene expression regulation, genes, lipid metabolism, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry, oxidative stress, photosynthesis, phytoremediation, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, protein composition, proteome, roots, salicylic acid, secondary metabolites, shoots, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, toxicity, transcription factors, transport proteins
This study was designed to investigate the effect of exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) on proteins pattern and secondary metabolites in arsenic (As) stressed Artemisia annua. A. annua was treated by As 100 μM, SA 100 μM and combined treatment of SA 100 μM + As 100 μM upto 3 days. Significant accumulation of As was observed in roots than shoots at As 100 μM treatment. Under As treatment, oxidative stress was induced as indicated by increased TBARS content. Biomass, carotenoid, flavonoids were enhanced whereas total chlorophyll pigment was reduced under As treatment. Combined treatment of SA 100 μM + As 100 μM was more effective for increment of biomass, total chlorophyll content, and flavonoids as compared to As 100 μM treatment. Protein profiling revealed 20 differentially abundant proteins by 2-DE PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Identified proteins were related to photosynthesis, energy metabolism, transcriptional regulators, secondary metabolism, lipid metabolism, transport proteins and unknown/hypothetical proteins. All identified proteins were significantly increased in abundance under combined treatments of SA 100 μM + As 100 μM. The expression analysis of key genes involved in biosynthesis of lipid metabolism, signal molecule, transcriptional regulators, artemisinin biosynthetic genes, isoprenoids pathway, terpenes and flavonoids pathway were significantly upregulated under combined treatments of SA 100 μM + As 100 μM, suggesting a fine linkage in regulation of primary and secondary metabolism to modulate tolerance capacity and to improve phytoremediation property of A. annua against arsenic toxicity.