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Congenital human toxoplasmosis caused by non-clonal Toxoplasma gondii genotypes in Argentina

Pardini, Lais, Bernstein, Mariana, Carral, Liliana A., Kaufer, Federico J., Dellarupe, Andrea, Gos, María L., Campero, Lucía M., Moré, Gastón, Messina, Matías T., Schneider, María V., Freuler, Cristina B., Durlach, Ricardo A., Unzaga, Juan M., Venturini, María C.
Parasitology international 2019 v.68 no.1 pp. 48-52
Canis latrans, Macropodidae, Toxoplasma gondii, acute course, alleles, bioassays, blood, cats, chickens, control methods, diagnostic techniques, dogs, doves, fetus, genotype, humans, infectious diseases, mice, monitoring, placenta, pregnancy, signs and symptoms (animals and humans), toxoplasmosis, umbilical cord, women, zoonoses, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, United States, Venezuela
Toxoplasmosis, a worldwide distributed zoonosis, can be transmitted congenitally affecting fetuses and developing variable clinical signs. Different Toxoplasma gondii genotypes and infective dose are related factors with different clinical manifestations. Several studies indicate that atypical strains could produce more severe clinical manifestations compared to typical strains. Umbilical cord blood (n = 37) and placenta (n = 19) were collected at birth from women with acute T. gondii infection and processed for isolation by mice bioassay. Six isolates were obtained and identified as TgHm14-4Arg, TgHm15-02Arg, TgHm16-01Arg, TgHm16-02Arg, TgHm17-01Arg and TgHm17-02Arg. Three genotypes described previously on Toxo-DB were identified: #138 identified in chickens from Brazil, #182 isolated from eared doves from Brazil, #14 from wallaby kangaroos and chickens from Argentina, chickens from Brazil, Colombia, Chile and Venezuela, cats and dogs from Brazil and Colombia and also coyotes from USA indicating worldwide distribution of these genotypes. Two new allele combinations were obtained showing high genotypes diversity in Argentina. Four of the isolates (TgHm14-4Arg, TgHm15-02Arg, TgHm16-01Arg, TgHm16-02Arg) and two of them (TgHm17-01Arg, TgHm17-02Arg) produced chronic and acute infections in mice, respectively. Until now, seven T. gondii isolates have been obtained from humans in Argentina, and all were atypical or non-clonal genotypes. The identification of atypical strains causing congenital toxoplasmosis and circulating in our region, make important to perform the serological screenings according Argentine Consensus of Toxoplasmosis and to apply and monitoring treatments earlier in pregnancy. To achieve this aim, it is necessary to inform general population about T. gondii infection, diagnostics and control measures. These results should serve to generate awareness about congenital toxoplasmosis in South America.