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Functional and nutritional characteristics of wheat grown in organic and conventional cropping systems
- PARK, EUN YOUNG, BAIK, BYUNG-KEE, MILLER, PERRY R., BURKE, IAN C., WEGNER, ERIC A., TAUTGES, NICOLE E., MORRIS, CRAIG F., PUERST, E. PATRICK
- Cereal chemistry 2015 v.92 no.5 pp. 504-512
- loaves, phosphorus, conventional farming, lactic acid, bran, hard red spring wheat, cakes, Triticum aestivum, breads, organic foods, organic production, sodium carbonate, hard red winter wheat, seeds, sucrose, baking quality, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, cookies, whole wheat flour, cropping systems, nutritive value, magnesium, ash content, solvents, protein content, phenolic compounds, Montana
- The effects of organic vs. conventional farming practices on wheat functional and nutritional characteristics were compared. Soft white winter wheat and hard red spring wheat were obtained from long-term replicated field plots near Pullman, Washington and Bozeman, Montana. Test weight, kernel weight, and kernel diameter tended to be greater in both soft and hard organic wheat than in conventional wheat. Phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity tended to be lower in organic than in conventional wheat. The lower phenolics and antioxidants may be associated with the larger kernels in organic compared to conventional, because larger kernels have a lower proportion of the bran in which phenolic compounds are concentrated. Content of flour ash, P, and Mg content in whole wheat flour varied in parallel among cropping systems but levels were not consistently associated with either organic or conventional cropping systems. Whole wheat and refined flour protein content were similar in organic and conventional wheat when fertility levels were similar. Higher fertility led to higher protein content regardless of whether the cropping system was organic or conventional. Soft wheat flour from a very low fertility organic cropping system had lower sodium carbonate, lactic acid and sucrose solvent retention capacities, lower protein, and greater cookie diameter and cake volume than soft wheat flour from the higher fertility organic and conventional cropping systems. In the hard wheat studies, higher fertility in both organic and conventional cropping systems tended to increase protein and bread loaf volume. In conclusion, these results did not provide any compelling reason to conclude that either organic or conventional cropping systems were associated with substantially improved mineral and antioxidant nutritional properties, and end-use quality of wheat was strongly associated with fertility level more than with organic vs. conventional cropping systems.