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Proteomic and metabolomic approaches in the search for biomarkers in chronic kidney disease

Cañadas-Garre, M., Anderson, K., McGoldrick, J., Maxwell, A.P., McKnight, A.J.
Journal of proteomics 2019 v.193 pp. 93-122
albumins, biomarkers, blood serum, citrulline, collagen, creatinine, kidney diseases, kynurenine, metabolites, metabolomics, patients, proteome, proteomics, public health, trimethylamine
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an aging-related disorder that represents a major global public health burden. Current biochemical biomarkers, such as serum creatinine and urinary albumin, have important limitations when used to identify the earliest indication of CKD or in tracking the progression to more advanced CKD. These issues underline the importance of finding and testing new molecular biomarkers that are capable of successfully meeting this clinical need.The measurement of changes in nature and/or levels of proteins and metabolites in biological samples from patients provide insights into pathophysiological processes. Proteomic and metabolomic techniques provide opportunities to record dynamic chemical signatures in patients over time.This review article presents an overview of the recent developments in the fields of metabolomics and proteomics in relation to CKD. Among the many different proteomic biomarkers proposed, there is particular interest in the CKD273 classifier, a urinary proteome biomarker reported to predict CKD progression and with implementation potential. Other individual non-invasive peptidomic biomarkers that are potentially relevant for CKD detection include type 1 collagen, uromodulin and mucin-1. Despite the limited sample sizes and variability of the metabolomics studies, some metabolites such as trimethylamine N-oxide, kynurenine and citrulline stand out as potential biomarkers in CKD.