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A strategic review on processing routes towards highly efficient perovskite solar cells

Dubey, Ashish, Adhikari, Nirmal, Mabrouk, Sally, Wu, Fan, Chen, Ke, Yang, Shangfeng, Qiao, Qiquan
Journal of materials chemistry 2018 v.6 no.6 pp. 2406-2431
annealing, bromides, cations, chlorides, crystal structure, crystallization, humidity, iodides, lead, metal ions, solar cells, solvents, temperature, tin
An organic–inorganic perovskite is comprised of an organic cation (CH₃NH₃⁺, FAI, or Cs), a metal cation (Pb²⁺ or Sn²⁺) and a halide (I⁻, Cl⁻, or Br⁻) molecule. Precursor salts containing these cations, molecules and halide ions dissolved in solvents are used to prepare perovskite films. Perovskite film formation takes place through the reaction of precursor elements, which is assisted by various processing conditions such as thermal annealing, moisture and solvent treatment. This review focuses on various perovskite formation and crystallization routes with respect to processing parameters including the precursor solvent, solvent mixture, temperature, time, formation of solvent led-intermediate complex species, doping and humidity. Adding water as the dopant to the precursor solvent and exposure to moisture from atmospheric humidity to improve perovskite film quality are also discussed. Processing conditions and crystallization processes are described in correlation with the perovskite film morphology, crystallinity, defects, charge transport and device performance. This article will aim to highlighting recent findings in the selection of solvents in the crystallization of perovskite films, solvent induced intermediate phases, and effects of water in assisting perovskite crystallization for improved film quality and device performance. The review will also present various structural and nanoscale characterization techniques that have been used to probe solvent based intermediate species transformation processes to the perovskite phase and understand the effects in correlation with device performance.